|9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2022
|Revenue from Contract with Customer [Abstract]
The Company accounts for revenue in accordance with ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. All revenue is recognized as our performance obligations are satisfied. A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to a customer, and is the unit of account under ASC 606. For revenue cycle management services, the Company recognizes revenue when services begin on medical billing claims, which is generally upon receipt of the claim from the provider. The Company estimates the value of the consideration it will earn over the remaining contractual period as services are provided and recognizes the fees over the term; this estimation involves predicting the amounts our clients will ultimately collect associated with the services they provided. Certain significant estimates, such as payment-to-charge ratios, effective billing rates and the estimated contractual payment periods are required to measure revenue cycle management revenue under the standard.
Most of our current contracts with customers contain a single performance obligation. For contracts where we provide multiple services, such as where we perform multiple ancillary services, each service represents its own performance obligation. The standalone selling prices are based on the contractual price for the service.
We apply the portfolio approach as permitted by ASC 606 as a practical expedient to contracts with similar characteristics and we use estimates and assumptions when accounting for those portfolios. Our contracts generally include standard commercial payment terms. We have no significant obligations for refunds, warranties or similar obligations and our revenue does not include taxes collected from our customers.
Disaggregation of Revenue from Contracts with Customers
We derive revenue from five primary sources: (1) technology-enabled business solutions, (2) professional services, (3) printing and mailing services, (4) group purchasing services and (5) medical practice management services.
The following table represents a disaggregation of revenue for the three and nine months ended September 30:
Technology-enabled business solutions:
Revenue derived on an on-going basis from our technology-enabled solutions is typically billed as a percentage of payments collected by our customers.
Revenue cycle management services are the recurring process of submitting and following up on claims with health insurance companies in order for the healthcare providers to receive payment for the services they rendered. The Company typically invoices customers on a monthly basis based on the actual collections received by its customers and the agreed-upon rate in the sales contract. The fee for these services typically includes use of practice management software and related tools (on a SaaS basis), electronic health records (on a SaaS basis), medical billing services and use of mobile health solutions. We consider the services to be one performance obligation since the promises are not distinct in the context of the contract. The performance obligation consists of a series of distinct services that are substantially the same and have the same periodic pattern of transfer to our customers.
In many cases, our clients may terminate their agreements with 90 days’ notice without cause, thereby limiting the term in which we have enforceable rights and obligations, although this time period can vary between clients. Our payment terms are normally net 30 days. Although our contracts typically have stated terms of one or more years, under ASC 606 our contracts are considered month-to-month and accordingly, there is no financing component.
For the majority of our revenue cycle management contracts, the total transaction price is variable because our obligation is to process an unknown quantity of claims, as and when requested by our customers over the contract period. When a contract includes variable consideration, we evaluate the estimate of the variable consideration to determine whether the estimate needs to be constrained; therefore, we include variable consideration in the transaction price only to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal of the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainty associated with variable consideration is subsequently resolved. Estimates to determine variable consideration, such as payment to charge ratios, effective billing rates, and the estimated contractual payment periods, are updated at each reporting date. Revenue is recognized over the performance period using the input method.
Our proprietary, cloud-based practice management application automates the labor-intensive workflow of a medical office in a unified and streamlined SaaS platform. The Company has a large number of clients who utilize the Company’s practice management software, electronic health records software, patient experience management solutions, business intelligence software and/or robotic process automation software on a SaaS basis, but who do not utilize the Company’s revenue cycle management services. SaaS fees may be fixed based on the number of providers, or may be variable.
The medical billing clearinghouse service takes claim information from customers, checks the claims for errors and sends this information electronically to insurance companies. The Company invoices customers on a monthly basis based on the number of claims submitted and the agreed-upon rate in the agreement. This service is provided to medical practices and providers to medical practices who are not revenue cycle management customers. The performance obligation is satisfied once the relevant submissions are completed.
Additional services such as coding, credentialing and transcription are sometimes rendered in connection with the delivery of revenue cycle management and related medical services. The Company invoices customers monthly, based on the actual amount of services performed at the agreed-upon rate in the contract. These services are only offered to revenue cycle management customers. These services do not represent a material right because the services are optional to the customer and customers electing these services are charged the same price for those services as if they were on a standalone basis. Each individual coding, credentialing or transcription transaction processed represents a performance obligation, which is satisfied over time as that individual service is rendered.
Our professional services include an extensive set of services including EHR vendor-agnostic optimization and activation, project management, IT transformation consulting, process improvement, training, education and staffing for large healthcare organizations including health systems and hospitals. Revenue is recorded monthly on a time and materials or a fixed rate basis. This is a separate performance obligation from any RCM or SaaS services provided, for which the Company receives and records monthly fees. The performance obligation is satisfied over time as the professional services are rendered.
Printing and mailing services:
The Company provides printing and mailing services for both revenue cycle management customers and a non- revenue cycle management customer, and invoices on a monthly basis based on the number of prints, the agreed-upon rate per print and the postage incurred. The performance obligation is satisfied once the printing and mailing is completed.
Group purchasing services:
The Company provides group purchasing services which enable medical providers to purchase various vaccines directly from selected pharmaceutical companies at a discounted price. Currently, there are approximately 4,000 medical providers who are members of the program. Revenue is recognized as the vaccine shipments are made to the medical providers. Fees from the pharmaceutical companies are paid either quarterly or annually and the Company adjusts its revenue accrual at the time of payment. The Company makes significant judgments regarding the variable consideration which we expect to be entitled to for the group purchasing services which includes the anticipated shipments to the members enrolled in the program, anticipated volumes of purchases made by the members, and the changes in the number of members. The amounts recorded are constrained by estimates of decreases in shipments and loss of members to avoid a significant revenue reversal in the subsequent period. The only performance obligation is to provide the pharmaceutical companies with the medical providers who want to become members in order to purchase vaccines. The performance obligation is satisfied once the medical provider agrees to purchase a specific quantity of vaccines and the medical provider’s information is forwarded to the vaccine suppliers. The Company records a contract asset for revenue earned and not paid as the ultimate payment is conditioned on achieving certain volume thresholds.
For all of the above revenue streams other than group purchasing services, revenue is recognized over time, which is typically one month or less, which closely matches the point in time that the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits provided by the Company. For the group purchasing services, revenue is recognized at a point in time. Each service is substantially the same and has the same periodic pattern of transfer to the customer. Each of the services provided above is considered a separate performance obligation.
Medical practice management services:
The Company also provides medical practice management services under long-term management service agreements to three medical practices. We provide the medical practices with the nurses, administrative support, facilities, supplies, equipment, marketing, RCM, accounting, and other non-clinical services needed to efficiently operate their practices. Revenue is recognized as the services are provided to the medical practices. Revenue recorded in the consolidated statements of operations represents the reimbursement of costs paid by the Company for the practices and the management fee earned each month for managing the practice. The management fee is based on either a fixed fee or a percentage of the net operating income.
The Company assumes all financial risk for the performance of the managed medical practices. Revenue is impacted by the amount of the costs incurred by the practices and their operating income. The gross billing of the practices is impacted by billing rates, changes in current procedural terminology code reimbursement and collection trends which in turn impacts the management fee that the Company is entitled to. Billing rates are reviewed at least annually and adjusted based on current insurer reimbursement practices. The performance obligation is satisfied as the management services are provided.
Our contracts for medical practice management services have approximately an additional 20 years remaining and are only cancellable under very limited circumstances. The Company receives a management fee each month for managing the day-to-day business operations of each medical group as a fixed fee or a percentage payment of the net operating income which is included in revenue in the consolidated statements of operations.
Our medical practice management services obligations consist of a series of distinct services that are substantially the same and have the same periodic pattern of transfer to our customers. Revenue is recognized over time, however for reporting and convenience purposes, the management fee is computed at each month end.
Information about contract balances:
As of September 30, 2022, the estimated revenue expected to be recognized in the future related to the remaining revenue cycle management performance obligations outstanding was approximately $3.9 million. We expect to recognize substantially all of the revenue for the remaining performance obligations over the next three months. Approximately $500,000 of the contract asset represents revenue earned, but not yet paid, from the group purchasing services.
Amounts that we are entitled to collect under the applicable contract are recorded as accounts receivable. Invoicing is performed at the end of each month when the services have been provided. The contract asset includes our right to payment for services already transferred to a customer when the right to payment is conditional on something other than the passage of time. For example, contracts for revenue cycle management services where we recognize revenue over time but do not have a contractual right to payment until the customer receives payment of their claim from the insurance provider. The contract asset also includes the revenue accrued, not received, for the group purchasing services.
Changes in the contract asset are recorded as adjustments to net revenue. The changes primarily result from providing services to revenue cycle management customers that result in additional consideration and are offset by our right to payment for services becoming unconditional and changes in the revenue accrued for the group purchasing services. The contract asset for our group purchasing services is reduced when we receive payments from vaccine manufacturers and is increased for revenue earned, not received. The opening and closing balances of the Company’s accounts receivable, contract asset and deferred revenue are as follows:
Our sales incentive plans include commissions payable to employees and third parties at the time of initial contract execution that are capitalized as incremental costs to obtain a contract. The capitalized commissions are amortized over the period the related services are transferred. As we do not offer commissions on contract renewals, we have determined the amortization period to be the estimated client life, which is three years. Deferred commissions were approximately $692,000 and $922,000 at September 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively, and are included in the other assets amounts in the consolidated balance sheets.